A Flute: Fluting of height 4-5mm, also known as coarse flute. See Flutes.
Accessories: We can divide the accessories products in 3 main groups.
1. Closing systems, which are mainly used for closing boxes or packages.
2. Stabilization packaging that is used for grouping the several packages in one bulk or pallet and helps it keep it safe during transports.
3. There are as well other products that are a complementary to the package itself like labels or security system that can give the package a complementary function in security or proper identification.
Adhesives dispensers and machines: From the simple manual tape dispenser to the fully automatic applicator machines, it makes the process of closing boxes faster and more efficient. In case of plastic tape a simple dispenser process is used for manual and automatic applications. The main difference is that in automatic applications the box closing is automatically done.
Adhesives tapes: The product consists in a base support (plastic, paper) and glue (adhesive), which are used for sealing corrugated boxes and other packages. There are different tape materials such as paper, plastics fabricated in a wide range of thicknesses and widths. This gives the best solution depending on application and area of usage. See Paper Tapes, and/or Plastic Tapes
Air freight: Air freighting is commonly used by companies who work with short lead times, or advanced service levels. Shipping by air certainly isn’t the cheapest alternative, and is only advisable for certain size/weighted products.
Air pad: Air pad is a fast, easy-to-use and efficient void filling solution that can also be used for blocking lightweight products. This packaging solution fills the empty spaces in the box, effectively protecting and stabilizing the product. The material is clean and aesthetic and it is suitable for regular shaped products without sharp edges.
Anti slip paper: Anti slip paper is a disposable non-woven fleece; it is placed between the layers and avoids shifting of the cargo. This fleece is used to put between roles of paper, but also as an anti-skid material under a pallet. Anti skid fleece is particularly efficient to use with goods of an irregular form.
Anti slip sheets are the best solution to become more safety and stable your pallets handling in the storage system and transport.
B Flute: Fluting of height 2.1-3mm. See Flutes.
Barriers: Barriers are available in the form of films or laminated foils (multi-layer) that protect against corrosion by preventing the entry of moist air into the packaging system. Barriers also protect against water infiltration, dust and hand perspiration…
Bending Test: During the use of sheet material for packaging it has become evident that the ability of the package to withstand compression is based on the bending strength and bending stiffness of the sheet material. Therefore this is a vital test to perform in order to get the best possible packaging.
The sheets are cut to size, 900 by 100 millimetres, and are conditioned in room climate (23 degrees and 50% RH) before testing. The test is performed by placing the pieces onto two pillars 500 millimetres from each other and then applying pressure to the middle (acc. to the picture). The test is completed either when the sheet brakes or when the force is zero.
Bins: Containers used for storage.
Bio-Degradable: Capable of being decomposed of by biological means
Birch Faced Kraft: the base ply is usually the same as for a White Top Kraft. The top ply is of Birch fibres which are bleached by an Oxygen based technique, which does not involve the use of chlorine compounds. This slightly lowers the overall environmental impact of the process, but the best whiteness levels can be achieved are lower than those that can be achieved for White Top Krafts.
Bleached Kraft: as its name implies, Bleached Kraft is produced by the same process as natural Kraft with the addition of bleaching stage in the pulping process. This produces a material which is white in appearance but with some loss of strength against the unbleached one. Bleached Krafts are less widely used nowadays with the development of White Top Krafts.
Block Pallet:Block pallets have the most efficient design without stringers. They are capable of full four-way entry; compatible with forklifts, hand trucks and walkies in all directions.
Blocking: There are many different ways to fill up a void or block a product inside a packaging. Standard materials can be used to develop a customized packaging solution and the focus is always to provide the most cost efficient solution for each project. The main purpose of these solutions is to block and fixate the product inside.
Blocking & Filling Solutions: The four main blocking and filling materials are paper pad, air pad, foam-in-place and loose fill. Honeycomb, bubble wrap and foam are other materials whose main field of application is not blocking and filling. However these materials are sometimes used for blocking and filling applications. Also some less commonly used materials will be presented under other solutions.
Blown Films: Blown stretch film provides greater tear resistance, tension retention and scuff resistance than cast film, making it ideal for heavy industrial loads, irregular loads and loads with sharp corners.
Bonded Warehouse：A warehouse, distribution centre or consolidation centre that is authorised by customs to store goods; where duties and taxes are only payable once items are dispatched.
Box:Describes a variety of containers and receptacles. When no specific shape is described, a typical rectangular box may be expected. Nevertheless, a box may have a horizontal cross section that is square, elongated, round or oval; sloped or domed top surfaces, or non-vertical sides. A box normally may be opened by raising, sliding or removing the lid, which may be hinged and/or fastened by a catch, clasp, lock, or adhesive tape.
Bracing: To bind or tie closely; to fasten tightly. The objective when bracing a product is to ensure it is tightly fitted to ensure minimal movements.
Brown Kraft: This material is naturally brown in appearance and the shade varies depending on the location of the mill, the source of fibre and the pulping process.
Bubble Wrap: Bubble wrap is a light and flexible packaging material made of low-density polyethylene. Bubble Wrap is an inner packaging solution which performs very well when used for blocking and filling. There are several different bubble sizes available and the wrap can be dissipative or conductive.
C Flute: Fluting of height 3.2 – 4mm. See Flutes.
Calcium Chloride: Calcium chloride can in some instances be used as a corrosion inhibitor.
Calcium chloride ( CaCl2 CAS No 10043-52-4) is a very hygroscopic salt. It is used, together with other chlorides, as water binding agent on roads, to melt ice on the roads in the Nordic countries and in a variety of other applications. It is classified as a hazardous compound and must be declared as such (irritating) in any product that holds more than 20% by weight.
Carton: A container made from folding boxboard and supplied flat for erection when filling, usually made of corrugated board.
Case: In terms of packaging, a case is similar to a tote. Cases are usually made of plastic and similar in concept to the briefcase.
Cast Films: Cast film provides better clarity and gloss, and quieter films unwind than blown films. These characteristics make cast film a good choice for cube shaped loads, and loads that are used for display purposes.
CFR, Cost and Freight: Incoterm (… named port of destination) “Cost and Freight” means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment.
The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or any damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the CPT term should be used.
Chip (C): Less commonly seen as a liner material than the other two. This is a material manufactured from uncontrolled recycled material. It offers much lower performance. It varies considerably in performance. Chip can be bleached or used in conjunction with bleached paper to give the following variations:
· Bleached (B) – Liner which is bleached, usually white.
· White top (WT) – Liner with a laminated bleached liner to give a similar affect to the above at a lower cost.
· Mottled (M) – Their use is normally restricted to applications as an inner and/or centre liner in double wall board, but can be used throughout in the manufacture of fittings as appropriate.
CIF, Cost, Insurance and Freight: Incoterm (… named port of destination) “Cost, Insurance and Freight” means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment.
The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to the events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. However, in CIF the seller also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage.
Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIF term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover, he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements. The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the CIP term should be used.
CIP, Carriage and Insurance Paid To: Incoterm (… named place of destination) “Carriage and Insurance paid to…” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. However, in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during carriage.
Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium.
The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover, he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements.
“Carrier” means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport, by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.
The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal transport.
Cleated Crate:When any type of crate reaches a certain size, more boards may be added. These boards are often called Cleats. A cleat is used to provide support to a panel when that panel has reached a size that is may require added support based on the method of transportation.
Climatic Stresses: In addition to the mechanical and energy strains the climate also plays a part in the durability and performance of the packaging during the transport. Humidity can create two types of problems in packaging. One problem caused by high relative humidity is the weakening of organic materials. The other problem is condensation inside a package, which may cause corrosion or other damaging effects. Condensation is particularly occurring during overseas transportation inside steel containers. Some packaging materials, particularly plastics, are adversely affected by temperature extremes. Plastic components may soften at high temperatures or become stiff and brittle at low temperatures.
Closing Systems: Usually there is the need to close a corrugated box, fix a container to a pallet, which is basically to keep the package as a one piece solution. Therefore it’s very important that we chose the correct product to perform well this operation. It is also important that the procedure is done in the correct and efficient way in order that all the elements in the packaging (f. corrugated box, foam, and closing system) work in the correct way. For types, see Adhesive Tapes, Straps, Packaging Machines, and Stapling.
Coarse Flute: Alternative name for A or C flute
Coated Paper: Paper made with a layer of clay on top of fibres.
Collapsibility: Collapsibility in packaging when we look at containers, crates, boxes etc is essential in transport packaging. The benefits of collapsible containers/packaging are; you can store more goods in the same warehouse space, you can save on inbound and return freight due to optimized transport, and much more.
Compression and Stacking Tests, ISO 12048 and 2234
This test is performed to assess the ability of a transport package to withstand compressive forces and to protect its contents during compression. The test may also be used as a stacking test to investigate the performance of i.e. the bottom package in a stack during storage in a warehouse.
The test package is placed between the parallel plates of a compression tester and then the load is applied. In the case of a compression test the load is applied until the package fails or predetermined values for load or displacement are reached. In the case of a stacking test a predetermined load is applied for a predetermined time or until the package fails.
Condensation: When the temperature of the metal surface is lower than the surrounding air, water condenses on the metal surface. Example: In a watertight enclosure, temperature is 20°C and Relative Humidity (%HR) is 80%. If temperature drops to 15°C, then water condenses.
Conductive Materials: Conductive materials allow charge (electrons) to move freely across their surface or through their volume. Charge placed in one spot on a conductive object will flow around the object so that all parts of the object share the same charge. If the charged conductive material makes contact with another conductive material or ground, the electrons will transfer between the materials or to ground quite easily. Electrostatic charge can be created triboelectrically on conductive materials. As long as the conductive material is isolated from other conductors or ground, the static charge will remain on the conductive material. A conductor does have some shielding capacity, (depending on the thickness). Typical products: “Black” -boxes. See ESD
Consignment: One or more items that a carrier has accepted for shipment at a given time.
Consolidation: The combination of two or more consignments to create a more economical freight solution.
Container: An item which product(s) are stored in. In the transport packaging industry, containers are used as storage for cargo during shipping, and often are made of wood, steel, or plastic materials.
Corrosion: Corrosion is a natural process. When products are fabricated out of iron, or other metals, it is natural for them to return to their original state. The metal begins to release its stored up energy by reacting with oxygen. This process is called corrosion. Factors Influencing Corrosion- The most common oxidation component influencing corrosion is the oxygen in both air and water. That is why meteorological elements such as: temperature, moisture are main factors influencing corrosion. Also, because of meteorological variations between two geographical points, products are subject to climatic stress. Different Forms of Corrosion: There are several types of electrochemical corrosion, depending on the material and the corrosive environment:
1. General corrosion. The surface effect produced by most direct chemical attacks (e.g., as by an acid) is a uniform etching of the metal.
2. Electrochemical corrosion. The most common form and it can vary depending on metals and the local environment.
3. Atmospheric corrosion. Corrosion in air is the most relevant to transport packaging design.
Corrosion Inhibitors: Corrosion Inhibitors are substances, which restrain the chemical process of corrosion. The most common type is VCI (Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors), also sometimes called VPI (Vapour Phase Inhibitors). VCI protects against the corrosive influences of oxygen, water vapour and condensation. VCI products can be impregnated into:
· Paper : useful as an intermediate layer between small parts
· Polyethylene: PE can be supplied as sheeting, tubing, bags, liners. Packages can be heat sealed or taped shut.
· Emitters : cups, foams, …
· For some applications, VCI oils and water based coatings can be used.
Corrugated: Corrugated is made from paper made up cellulose fibres which can be virgin or recycled. The board consists of formed fluting that is faced with a liner on both sides. Corrugated board consists of one or more sheets of fluted paper adhered to one or more liner papers. The manufacturing process requires at least two layers of paper, very high humidity (steam), glue and heating only, that’s why corrugated is treated as environmental friendly product. A variety of boards are made using variations of:
· Liner material
· Fluting medium
· Board construction
Corrugated Board: Formed fluting faced with liner on both sides, for more detail see corrugated.
Corrugator: The machine for making corrugated board.
CPS, Complete Packaging Solutions: CPS is not about selling one product. CPS is about selling a solution which will provide the customer with a total cost take out. The products and possible services that will be chosen will optimise the transport and logistics while fulfilling the requirements that the customer has on the packaging.
CPT, Carriage Paid To: Incoterm (… named place of destination) “Carriage paid to…” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any other costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered.
“Carrier” means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport, by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.
The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal transport.
Crate:A crate is a large container, often made of wood, often used to transport large, heavy, high-valued, or awkward items. A crate has a self-supporting structure. For a container to be a crate, all six of its sides must be put in place to result in the rated strength of the container. Boxes and crates are often confused with one another; mostly when they are made of wood.
Custom Packaging: Designing packing solutions for customers’ specific requirements. This is usually done through the use of software programs such as CAD, and also often requires testing of the packaging under the specific conditions which the product would go through. See testing for more details.
Cutting-Strength Test: The cutting-strength test is performed to establish the strength of the glue, which holds the veneers of ply together to form the plywood-sheet. The testing methods vary a bit depending on the bonding material used in the plywood. The size of the pieces should be approximately 135 by 25 millimetres and only have three layers of veneer. Into these pieces you cut two grooves, one on each opposing side, down through two of the layers (as shown in the drawing), the groove should be so deep so that it cuts through the middle layer from both sides. Before the actual testing begins the sheets are conditioned in water, in different ways depending on the bonding material used in the plywood. The test is then conducted by pulling the plywood-sheet from two different directions at once until the sheet brakes.
DAF, Delivered At Frontier: Incoterm(… named place) “Delivered at Frontier” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but before the customs border of the adjoining country. The term “frontier” may be used for any frontier including that of the country of export. Therefore, it is of vital importance that the frontier in question be defined precisely by always naming the point and place in the term.
However, if the partier wish the seller to be responsible for the unloading of the goods from the arriving means of transport and to bear the risks and costs of unloading, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.
This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport when goods are to be delivered at a land frontier. When delivery is to take place in the port of destination, on board a vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used.
Dangerous Goods: Dangerous goods are a designation for substances and products that have such dangerous characteristics that they can damage humans, animals, environment or property if they are not handled right during transport or storage. Even emptied packages or containers that have contained such substances can in some cases be regarded as dangerous goods. The basic purpose for DG Packaging is to contain the dangerous goods even if the box is being put under grate stress. Nefab products are very strong and fulfils this purpose very well IF THEY ARE PRODUCED AND MARKED according to the certificates we hold. For dangerous goods to be safe for transport they must be properly (also see Classification of Dangerous Goods)
· labelled and
Dangerous Goods, Classification of:Goods that are to be transported can involve many kinds of risks and are therefore divided into nine different classes. All classes are also divided into subclasses. The following classes give you an idea of which kind of products and material are classified as dangerous goods.
3. Flammable liquids
4. Flammable solids; Substances liable to spontaneous combustion; Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
5. Oxidizing substances and Organic peroxides
6. Toxic and infectious substances
7. Radioactive materials
9. Miscellaneous dangerous goods
DDP, Delivered Duty Paid: Incoterm (… named place of destination) “Delivered duty paid” means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto including, where applicable, any “duty” (which term includes the responsibility for and the risks of the carrying out of customs formalities and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination.
Whilst the EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller, DDP represents the maximum obligation.
This term should not be used if the seller is unable directly or indirectly to obtain the import licence.
However, if the parties wish to exclude from the seller’s obligations some of the costs payable upon import of the goods (such as value-added tax: VAT), this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.
If the parties wish the buyer to bear all risks and costs of the import, the DDU term should be used.
This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used.
DDU, Delivered Duty Unpaid, Incoterm (… named place of destination) “Delivered duty unpaid” means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto, other than, where applicable, any “duty” (which term includes the responsibility for and the risks of the carrying out of customs formalities, and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. Such “duty” has to be borne by the buyer as well as any costs and risks caused by his failure to clear the goods for import in time.
However, if the parties wish the seller to carry out customs formalities and bear the costs and risks resulting there from as well as some of the costs payable upon import of the goods, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.
This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used.
DEQ, Delivered Ex Quay: Incoterm (… named port of destination) “Delivered Ex Quay” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination and discharging the goods on the quay (wharf). The DEQ term requires the buyer to clear the goods for import and to pay for all formalities, duties, taxes and other charges upon import.
This is a reversal from previous INCOTERMS versions which required the seller to arrange for import clearance.
If the parties wish to include in the seller’s obligations all or part of the costs payable upon import of the goods, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.
This term can be used only when the goods are to be delivered by sea or inland waterway or multimodal transport on discharging from a vessel onto the quay (wharf) in the port of destination. However if the parties wish to include in the seller’s obligations the risks and costs of the handling of the goods from the quay to another place (warehouse, terminal, transport station, etc.) in or outside the port, the DDU or DDP terms should be used.
DES, Delivered Ex Ship: Incoterm (… named port of destination) “Delivered Ex Ship” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination before discharging. If the parties wish the seller to bear the costs and risks of discharging the goods, then the DEQ term should be used.
This term can be used only when the goods are to be delivered by sea or inland waterway or multimodal transport on a vessel in the port of destination.
Desiccants: Desiccants are granules of between 0.3 mm and 6.3 mm in which there are countless numbers of pores. The less water they contain themselves, the more active they are (i.e. the more water vapour they can absorb from the surrounding air). When air is dried using desiccants it will not release condensation onto sensitive surfaces when the surrounding temperature drops.
Die – Cut: Stamping out a specified shape using steel rule dies.
Die-Cutting:The process of cutting shapes from sheets of plastic by pressing a shaped knife edge into one or several layers of sheeting. The dies are often called steel rule dies, and pressure is applied by hydraulic or mechanical presses.
Dissipative Materials: There can be electron flow across or through the dissipative material, but the surface resistance or volume resistance of the material controls it. “A slowly controlled move.” Like other types of materials, charge can be generated triboelectrically on a dissipative material. However, like the conductive material, the dissipative material will allow the transfer of charge to ground or other conductive and dissipative objects. The transfer of charge from a dissipative material will generally take longer than from a conductive material of equivalent size. Charge transfers from dissipative materials are significantly slower than from conductors. See ESD
Distribution: The process of storing and transporting finished goods from the end of the production line to the final customer.
Distribution Centre: A facility that accepts inbound consignments of raw materials, components or finished goods, divides and then recombines them in different ways into outbound shipments. Many DCs also contain specialised handling/storage equipment and IT systems and also serve as warehouses. Also: regional DC (or RDC), national DC (or NDC) and international DC (or IDC).
Double wall corrugation: Normally a combination of B & C flutes. Double wall corrugated board should be used when stronger boxes and extra padding are needed. A common solution for stacking products with average weight.
Drop Test: The purpose of this test is not only to test the actual package but also to see how well the intended content is protected by the package. The test simulates actual shocks by dropping the package and its intended content freely against a rigid plane surface from a predetermined height. The package is set up to hit the surface at a particular angle and on a particular attitude, face, edge or corner, of the package.
Drum: barrel or large cylindrical container for liquid transport and storage
E Flute:Fluting of height 1 – 1.8mm, also called fine flute, see Flutes.
Edge Crush Test: Test of vertical crush resistance
EDI: One of the first steps in rationalizing information transfer in the supply chain was EDI (Electronic Data Interchange). EDI is a method of exchanging information about business objects electronically in a standard format so that the information is correctly processed by the receiving computers. The problem in order to make this work is that the customer and the supplier have DIFFERENT BUSINESS SYSTEMS with different item number systems and different format of data. Both NEED to work in their own system! Please note, EDI is not the same as VMI.
Electrostatic Charge: Static electricity is defined as an electrical charge caused by an imbalance of electrons on the surface of a material. This imbalance of electrons produces an electric field that can be measured and that can influence other objects at a distance. Electrostatic discharge, ESD, is defined as the transfer of charge between bodies at different electrical potentials.
Controlling electrostatic discharge begins with understanding how electrostatic charge occurs in the first place. Electrostatic charge is most commonly created by the contact and separation of two materials.
Environmental Hazards: Transport packages and their contents are influenced by the methods of transport and the stresses they are submitted to during transport. There are several types of stresses the package has to be able to withstand. Among these are mechanical strains and climatic stresses.
EPA – Electrostatic Protected Area: An EPA is an area that is maintained safe for handling of electrostatic sensitive components. Keeping electrostatic fields and voltages to an insignificantly low level is the guiding-star to attain this. An EPA should have well defined boundaries so that it is absolutely clear where the safe area is entered and left.
To make an EPA, some arrangements need to be done. Any surface floor, chairs, tables and benches need to be resistively correct and ESD grounded. Personnel have to wear the correct clothes, shoes and wristbands. All material brought into the area need to be ESD safe and controlled.
EPE (PE) Foam: PE is the most widely used polymer in the world and as a result, is probably the polymer that we all see most frequently in our day to day activities. This polymer is used to make grocery bags, shampoo bottles, children’s toys, and even bullet-proof vests. Although this product is very versatile in its applications, it has an extremely simple chemical structure. A molecule of PE is simply a long chain of carbon atoms, with two hydrogen atoms attached. Expanded polyethylene beads produce very flexible, closed-cell foam, which offers a high degree of resiliency. This material can withstand repetitive deformations and still maintain its dimensions and cushioning ability. Expanded polyethylene is a thermoplastic foam with closed cells. Non-cross linked Polyethylene foam is a tough, resilient, lightweight, moisture and chemical resistant closed cell material that is usable throughout a wide temperature range. Good resistance to acids non-organic chemicals and alkali’s. Good temperature resistance, isolating.
EPP Foam: Polypropylene foam is a tough, resilient, and lightweight closed cell material that is moisture and chemical resistant and can be used throughout a wide temperature range.
PP is a very versatile material but is not as widely used as PE, however, due to its moderate cost and favourable attributes makes it one of the fastest growing classes of commodity thermoplastics. PP is one of the lightest of all thermoplastics and as a result, fewer pounds are needed for finished goods. Due to the high strength to weight ratio, it is much more rigid when compared to other polyolefins. Many items that are designed to withstand high temperatures, such as automotive and electronic parts utilise PP because of its high melt temperature and creep resistance. Structurally, it is very similar to PE with the exception that every other carbon
atom in the backbone chain has a methyl group attached to it. Expanded polypropylene (EPP) beads produce low-density, closed-cell foam with excellent energy absorption characteristics. The material has together with EPE, excellent recoverability from repeated shocks and deformations. Foams moulded from these beads also retain their high degree of dimensional stability when exposed to temperature extremes.
EPS Foam: Very good temperature resistance, low conductivity. Shock absorption and resiliency (maintained performance during repeated use) inferior to EPE/EPP, but often better performance under static compression (stacking). More EPS foam shapes are manufactured than any other type on the market. Most EPS used in the packaging industry is moulded into custom shapes from beads. Lower material cost than many other products. Primarily the small appliance and consumer electronics markets for shipping lightweight, relatively rugged products use these foam shapes. EPS is rigid and lightweight, and usually good single-impact protection for relatively durable items, such as kitchen appliances and telephones.
Ergonomics: Ergonomics is commonly thought of as how companies design tasks and work areas to maximize the efficiency and quality of their employees’ work. In Packaging & Logistics, this plays a role to ensure packers aren’t at risk or for packaging companies to limit that risk by offering products that are designed with ergonomic concerns in mind.
ESD (ElectroStatic Discharge): Static electricity is a phenomenon as old as our world and is still the most unknown form of electricity. To many people, static electricity is no more than the shock experienced when touching a metal doorknob after walking across a carpeted room or sliding across
a car seat. However, static electricity has been a serious industrial problem for centuries. Modern electronic components are often very sensitive to discharges of static electricity, ESD (ElectroStatic Discharge). Why worry about ESD- Within industry, ESD is discreet and invisible and causes problems of different nature. Many electrical components, including computer chips, electronic assemblies and circuit boards, can be damaged beyond repair by electrical discharges. Manufacturers of electronic components and assemblers of electronic systems must control static discharges in their processes through the use of an effective ESD program. If they fail to take the necessary measures to control static electricity many of the components or systems they produce will fail to work or will suffer a reduced operating life.
ETSI: ETSI EN 300 019-2-2 V2.1.2 (1999-09) Transportation This standard includes 3 different severity levels, Very careful, Careful and Public transportation, to choose between and it treats both packed and unpacked products. But only products for the telecommunication market. ETSI is an organization whose mission is to produce telecommunication standards. ETSI unites a big number of members from 55 countries inside and outside Europe.
EXCO: To be able to compare alternative Export- or expendable packaging solutions from cost viewpoint requires that a quite detailed packaging audit be conducted. It is necessary to understand the customer’s needs and operating environment. Once the data is collected and entered into EXCO, software application developed by Nefab based on software called Delphi, it will be possible to demonstrate the effectiveness and cost efficiency of several packaging alternatives.
ExPak: The name Nefab ExPak derives from Export Packaging, in other words an external packaging for demanding export transports. Generally, all export packing places great demands on packaging. The former name for NEFAB ExPak was Vikex, which is derived from the Swedish words for foldable export packaging – vikbara exportförpackningar.
Expendable Packaging: This term (similar to export packaging) stands for one-way. Packaging materials that fall under export or expendable are usually only expected to make it once from its assembly to final destination. Expendable packaging is usually only used for international shipments by air or sea, but at times plays a role in domestic shipping.
Extruded Film: The process in which the extrusion of molten resin occurs through a die, which then produces a film… see also ‘Extruded Materials’
Extruded Materials: Extruded materials are generally used when the product have a low volume, easy design (also possibly for a product with difficult design), the lifetime of the product are short and when the design of the product changes often. Extruded materials are used for pads, L-shaped profiles, and case inserts. Because the use of fabrication, the flexibility is very good. Tooling costs are low.
EXW, Ex Works: Incoterm – (… named place) “Ex Works” means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place (ie. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.
This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller, and the buyer has to bear all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller’s premises.
F Flute: Fluting of height 0.75mm, also called micro flute, see Flutes.
FAS Free Alongside Ship: Incoterm (… named port of shipment) “Free Alongside Ship” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment.
The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This is a reversal from previous INCOTERMS versions which required the buyer to arrange for export clearance. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.
FCA, Free Carrier: Incoterm – (… named place) “Free Carrier” means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. If delivery occurs at the seller’s premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is not responsible for unloading.
This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport, including multimodal transport. “Carrier” means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
If the buyer nominates a person other than a carrier to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are delivered to that person.
FEFCO: The European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacture. FEFCO represents 22 European National Associations in the corrugated packaging industry and is mandated by these active members to represent them on a European level.
Flutes: Architects have known for thousands of years that an arch with the proper curve is the strongest way to span a given space. The inventors of corrugated fibre board applied this same principle to paper when they put arches in the corrugated medium. These arches are known as flutes and when anchored to the linerboard with a starch-based adhesive, they resist bending and pressure from all directions. When a piece of combined board is placed on its end, the arches form rigid columns, capable of supporting a great deal of weight. When pressure is applied to the side of the board, the space in between the flutes acts as a cushion to protect the container’s contents. The flutes also serve as an insulator, providing some product protection from sudden temperature changes. At the same time, the vertical liner board provides more strength and protects the flutes from damage. Flutes come in several standard shapes or flute profiles (A, B, C, E, F, etc.). A-flute was the first to be developed and is the largest common flute profile. B-flute was next and is much smaller. C-flute followed and is between A and B in size. E-flute is smaller than B and F-flute is smaller yet.
Flutings: Flutings fall into two categories:
1. Recycled Fluting – made from 100% recycled fibre, which come from selected grades of waste paper. RCT Rigidity and Concora strength properties are usually enhanced by the addition of chemicals and starches.
2. Semi-Chemical Fluting – is manufactured from hardwood pulp. Typically Semi-Chemical flutings will contain a proportion of recycled or softwood fibres. Semi-Chemical Fluting is commonly used for heavy duty packaging and in some instances where high humidity conditions are expected.
Flexible Packaging: Flexible packaging is material such as paper or foil used to form packaging for items such as bags, pouches, envelopes, etc.
Flexographic: Type of printing on standard corrugated or plywood boxes such as logotype.
Fluting Medium: Paper formed into the flute profile, see corrugated for more details.
Fluting Profile: The shape of the corrugations, see corrugated for more details.
Foam: Foam is widely used as protective packaging material and has unique shock absorbing abilities. There are basically four different materials (polymers) and two main manufacturing techniques that are used to meet required specifications. Foam belongs mainly to cushioning but can in some cases be considered as a blocking and filling medium why it will be briefly described in this course.
Foam-in-place: Foam-in-place is a fast, easy and versatile process for on-line and on-site production of protective polyurethane foam packages. The polyurethane foam is created through a chemical process, where two liquids react and expand rapidly. In a very short space of time, the foam expands more than 280 times.
FOB, Free on Board: Incoterm (… named port of shipment) “Free on Board” means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intent to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the FCA term should be used.
Free Trade Zone：A commercial or industrial area usually near a port of entry where merchandise and raw material imports are not subject to customs charges or duties
Freight Forwarder：A person or company involved in the collection, consolidation, shipping and distribution of goods from overseas territories. Typically, freight forwarders clear freight through customs, prepare documents and arrange shipping, warehousing and delivery.
Glue: Glue made out of starch is most commonly used in modern paper and paper packaging industry. This kind of glue doesn’t have any negative influence on environment and is easily applicable onto a paper.
Glue-Joints Test: This test is very similar to the one used to measure the strength of the plywood. However, unlike that test the pressure is applied on both sides of the glue-joint, in order to get the maximum strain on the joint. The test is performed by placing the sheets, 900 by 200 millimetres, on two pillars with the joint between them. By adding pressure to the joint it is possible to measure the amount of pressure, or strain, the glue-joint is able to withstand. The test is concluded either when the board brakes or when the force is down to zero.
HDPE: High Density Polyethylene, see foam for more details.
Honeycomb: Honeycomb is a material consisting of Kraft-liner formed into continuous uniform hexagonal cells. The hexagonal structure makes this material quite strong – can support 40 Ton/m2 maximum (vertical compression). Apart from blocking and filling, it can also be used as a product separator or even as a pallet.
Horizontal Impact Test: Horizontal shocks are simulated by applying a horizontal velocity to the test specimen and bringing it to halt by impact with a vertical impact surface. The impact velocity and the attitude of the test specimen are predetermined. Three different types of test apparatus is available for this test, Inclined plane tester, Horizontal plane tester and Pendulum apparatus. Most major horizontal impact arise from railway shunting, which is why this is a meaningful test to perform on packaging destined for this type of transport.
IATA DGR:The International Air Transport Association Dangerous Goods Regulations
ID: Inner Dimension, usually given or shown as L (length) x W (width) x H (height).
Impact Indicators: The drop or impact indicator is an impact detection device that activates when the impact level exceeds the threshold of the unit. It can be used inside the box, directly on the product or outside the product in the external box.
Inbound Logistics:The movement of raw materials and components from suppliers/vendors to production processes and storage facilities. International inbound logistics is the management of the international inbound supply chain, often on behalf of retailers.
Indicators: Today’s “Just-In-Time” zero defect delivery requirements demand shipping control to ensure that handling and transportation is performed accordingly. Nefab delivers indicators to several industries and the wide product range makes it possible to find the most suitable solution for each customer approach.
Inner Packaging：By blocking, bracing and cushioning the products, the inner packaging together with the outer packaging is protecting the product from transport and storage damages. The inner packaging surrounds the product and can also be designed to protect against abrasion, corrosion or electro static discharge (ESD).
Insulative Materials: Insulative materials do not allow charge (electrons) to move across their surface or through their volume. Charge placed on one spot on an insulative object will stay in that location. If a charged insulator is grounded, charge will not move to ground. Insulators can have both negatively and positively charged areas on the same object, because insulators do not allow charge (electrons) movement. Insulators can accumulate massive amounts of charge. See ESD.
Intermodal: This involves the use of more than one form of transport for a journey.
Inventory: A list of raw materials, components, work in progress, finished goods or other supplies held in a warehouse or distribution centre.
ISO: ISO 4180-1 and -2:1980 Complete, filled transport packages – General rules for the compilation of performance test schedules. Recommends severity levels when the whole distribution chain is known. The standard tells that only the strains that will exist are necessary to test. A test program for any general undefined distribution system isn’t included. ISO is a global association of national standardization institutions, about 130 countries are included in this association.
JIT: Just-in-time, A comprehensive stock and manufacturing control system, in which materials are purchased, manufactured or supplied only when required. In logistics, JIT uses pull replenishment to ensure deliveries are completed at the right time in order to meet production and client schedules.
KANBAN: Is a concept related to lean and just-in-time (JIT) production. Kanban is a signaling system. As its name suggests, kanban historically uses cards to signal the need for an item. However, other devices such as plastic markers (kanban squares) or balls (often golf balls) or an empty part-transport trolley can also be used to trigger the movement, production, or supply of a unit in a factory. It was out of a need to maintain the level of improvements that the kanban system was devised by Toyota. Kanban became an effective tool to support the running of the production system as a whole. In addition, it proved to be an excellent way for promoting improvements because restricting the number of kanban in circulation highlighted problem areas.
Kraft (K): Kraft consists of at least 80% virgin chemical pulp fibre. It offers excellent strength and stiffness properties and excellent surface finish. Kraft Liner represents the top material grade in terms of physical properties used in the corrugated industry. In general these liners are made from softwood pulp (ISO 4046) although many sources of Kraft liner now also incorporate pulp from harder wood sources such as birch. Most sources of Kraft liner also incorporate recycled fibre in varying amounts, depending on the manufacturer. For the different material types, see Brown Kraft, White Tope Kraft, White Mottled Kraft, Bleached Kraft, and/or Birch Faced Kraft.
Labels: Labels for marking and identifying the packaging are available in many shapes and sizes. Nefab can provide a wide range, from consumer packaging labels showing company logos, to those required for dangerous goods by law.
LDPE: Low density polyethylene, see foam for more details.
Lightweight Pallet:The light weight pallet is an excellent load carrier for heavy goods that need a strong and durable packaging solution. Nefab’s lightweight plywood pallet can not only be reused several times but can also be sold as an integrated part of the box. The plywood deck has a smooth, clean surface and low moisture absorption. Another major advantage is the low weight, yet good strength of the pallet. Plywood is not considered a phytosanitary problem according to international regulations; therefore the pallet can be shipped to any destination. The plywood deck and the steel cylinders are manufactured in standard footprints of 1200 X 800 mm and 600 X 800mm. Nefab is able to customise the lightweight pallets up to 3100 mm. Additional benefit of using the lightweight pallet is that there will be cost savings in Air Freight since it is much lighter than the traditional hard wood pallets.
Liner: The inner and outer facing of corrugated board, see Corrugated.
Liner materials are available in the following basic forms:
· Kraft (K)
· Test (T)
· Chip (C)
LTL: Less-than-truckload Logistics, the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient and cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process stocks, finished goods and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for customers. Put more simply, it is the science and art of ensuring that the right products reach the right place in the right quantity at the right time in order to satisfy consumer demand. Logistics encompasses warehousing, transport, added-value/pre-retailing services and IT solutions and covers inbound, outbound, internal, international and reverse product flows.
Load Securing: The solution can be used to prevent damages during transportation.Benefits of load securing: Flexible solutions available, efficient, low cost packaging material, Simple, safe and fast applications, Dynamic systems.
Lock’N Pop: Lock’N Pop is an adhesive of watery base and ecological to palletise, that works as an anti-slip. It’s ideal to products packed in boxes, bags or even to frozen products that easily slide and create
palletises problems. The way to use consists in an automatically application, proper for production lines, or a manual application ideal to small and varied series.
Logistics: The process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient and cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process stocks, finished goods and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for customers. Put more simply, it is the science and art of ensuring that the right products reach the right place in the right quantity at the right time in order to satisfy consumer demand. Logistics encompasses warehousing, transport, added-value/pre-retailing services and IT solutions and covers inbound, outbound, internal, international and reverse product flows.
Loose Fill: Loose fill is a void filling and blocking packaging material. Polystyrene is traditionally often used as raw material but loose fill can be made of different materials. Corn starch and recycled paper are eco friendly raw materials which are increasing in popularity.
Material: Materials are physical substances used as inputs to production or manufacturing. Materials range from manmade synthetics such as many plastics to natural materials such as copper or wood. In packaging, the process of selecting the proper packaging material is one of the most important due to the varying degrees of costs and characteristics.
Material Testing: Material tests are used for all kind of materials used as packaging material. Here we are focusing on tests used to qualify plywood for our ownly produced NEFAB ExPak and NEFAB RePak products. The tests, more detailed described below are:
• Bending test-EPU: 4/86:89
• Moisture absorption test
• Cutting–strength test, BS 6566:part 8:1985
• Testing of glue–joints, SS 84 20 21:mom 6.1
• Joint test, sheet/steel (tongues and klammerband) material
Except these testing methods it´s worth mentioning some test methods used for corrugated packaging material, as follows:
• ECT-Edgewise crush test, ISO 3037
• Bursting strength, ISO 2759
• FCT-Flat crush test, ISO 3035
• Cobb-Water absorption, ISO 535
• BCT- Box crush test
Mechanical Strains: The most common mechanical strains on transported goods are force stresses like, stacking pressure and shocks and energy stresses like vibration and dropping. When stacking in a trailer or ship’s hold the stresses increase due to the movement of the carrier. As an example, the pressure at the front of a horizontal stack amounts to eight times that of the stress in a warehouse. One of the most common energy stresses is dropping. The change in energy the packaging is subject to while dropped is depending on the mass of the product and the height that the product is dropped from. This type of energy is called potential energy. In a shock caused by a sudden retardation of speed, for example a railway car that slows down to 0 m/sec, the energy stress is depending on the mass of the product and the speed before slowing down. This type of energy is called kinetic energy.
Moisture Absorption Test: In order to determine the plywood box’s capability to protect the goods from moisture and to establish how moisture resistant the actual box will be a moisture absorption test is performed on the different batches of plywood used. To start of the testing procedures the sheets, 100 by 100 millimetres, are weighed and the thickness are measured. The second step is to submerge the sheets in water for four hours. After the four hours have elapsed the sheets are weighed and measured again in order to determine the status of the moisture absorption. The submerging procedure is then repeated, this time for 72 hours, after which the sheets are measured and the final results noted.
Moulded Materials: Moulded materials are generally used when there is a high volume and a long lifetime of the products, or when the products have a sensitive or difficult design. The tooling costs are high compared to the tooling cost for Extruded materials. (Ethafoam ex.)
Mullen Burst: A measure of tear resistance.
NATO:North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. With headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, the organization established a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party.
NEFAB: (Nordgrens Emballage fabric) Nordgrens is the founding family name, Emballage is Swedish for Packaging, Fabrik is Swedish for Factory.
NIIN: NATO Item Identification Number
OD: Outer Dimension, usually given or shown as L (length) x W (width) x H (height). An important thing to clarify when talking OD, is to determine if it is with or without pallet or base.
OPTICO: OptiCo is an optimization program developed by Nefab to help demonstrate cost savings that can be derived by using the NEFAB ExPak line of packaging products vs. “traditional” solutions taking into consideration many packaging & logistics issues.
Optimization: The procedure(s) used to make a system or design as effective or functional as possible. Factors in packaging where optimization is important is in warehousing, transport, containerization, etc.
Outsourcing: The sub-contracting to external companies of tasks considered to be outside an organisation’s core competence. Logistics outsourcing is one of the most popular forms.
Packaging Design: Designing packing solutions for customers’ specific requirements. This is usually done through the use of software programs such as CAD, and also often requires testing of the packaging under the specific conditions which the product would go through. See testing for more details.
Packaging Groups: Packaging Code refers to the type of packaging. Another concept – the Packaging Group refers to the strength of the packaging. Different dangerous substances demand different strengths of packaging. The Packaging group is a representation of the strength of the packaging. The Packaging group determines which height is to be used at the drop test.
· Packaging group I (X): shall pass a drop test from 1,8 m (the strongest packaging!) for very dangerous goods. (Poisonous substances like cyanide and infectious substances demand this packaging group.)
· Packaging group II (Y): shall pass a drop test from 1,2 m.* for medium dangerous goods. (Explosives, batteries intended for air freight demand this packaging group) *If a box is intended for explosives it also must have a special judgement for explosives.
· Packaging group III (Z): shall pass a drop test from 0,8 m for less (but still) dangerous goods. (Ex. flammable fluids and batteries intended for road transport demand this group.)
Packing: The process of placing a product or products in protective packaging. Outsourced packing is often known as co-packing.
Palletization: Using pallets to go through the whole manufacturing process. Palletization is the assemblage and securing of individual items or work pieces on a platform that can then be moved by a conveyance such as a truck, forklift, or crane, and conveniently stored (for example, in racks) between moves. Palletization is one approach for exploiting the “unit load” concept — moving work pieces in groups is much more economical than moving them individually. Effective palletization can improve cycle times, reduce time and labour costs of setup, and increase agility when dealing with rapid fluctuations in demand mix at low investment expense compared to upgrades of machines and fixtures.
Paper pad: Paper pad can be used for many applications and is suitable as a blocking as well as a filling medium. This product can also be used for wrapping. Paper pad is very suitable for irregular shaped products and fragile parts.
Paper tapes: Use of gummed tape has the advantage of providing a better bond between the surfaces of the box than the adhesive tape: The liquid glue penetrates deep into the fibres of the box surface. The adhesive strip holds even when exposed to unfavourable environmental influences (extreme temperatures, dust, moisture, long storage) and can neither be opened nor removed by unauthorized persons without visible traces. Self-adhesive tapes are particularly efficient to apply and constitute an equivalent alternative for a normal application.
Pick-and-Pack: The process by which goods are picked against customers’ orders and then packed for onward distribution.
Pitch: The distance from one flute tip to the next, see Corrugated.
Plastic tapes: This product group includes standard self-adhesive tapes, based on PVC (Polyvinylchloride) films. These general-purpose, top-level-quality tapes are mainly used to seal cartons. Nevertheless, the adhesive coating properties make them suitable to be successfully employed on many other surfaces.
Polyester Strap: Polyester strapping is designed for medium to heavy-duty palletizing and unitizing applications and can be applied by hand tools or power strapping equipment. This strapping material yields higher break strengths and maintains a higher level of retained strap tension than polypropylene strapping. It is commonly used for palletized loads, such as PET bottles, to prevent product shifting during handling and transit.
Polyethylene (PE or EPE): is the most widely used polymer that can be moulded as well as fabricated depending on the requirements. It is a moisture resistant and resilient packaging material with good multiple drop cushioning performances. One main feature with PE is the possibility to recycle it.
Polypropylene (PP or EPP): is a moulded foam that just like polyethylene is a moisture resistant and resilient material with good multiple drop cushioning performances.
Polypropylene Strap: Polypropylene strapping, designed to run through hand tools and power strapping equipment, provides superior performance for light to medium-duty bundling and carton closure applications. It has excellent elongation recovery properties, making it ideal for products that shrink or compress, such as top-iced food packages and newspaper bundles.
Polystyrene (PS or EPS): is a moulded foam with good insulation capability and good first drop cushioning performance.
Polyurethane (PU or PUR): is commonly fabricated but can also be moulded. The material is recognised as mattress or furniture material and is suitable as cushioning for light weight products and as interior packaging in cases.
Position Indicators: The position indicator is an indicating device for goods that must remain upright to ensure correct delivery and no damage.
Product Fragility: The first step toward determining the amount of cushioning a product requires is to determine the amount of mechanical shock the product can survive on its own. There are several common terms for this, with “fragility” and “G-factor” being the most common. Fragility is normally expressed in units of “G” and indicates the maximum deceleration the product can withstand without being damaged. The more fragile a product is, the lower its G-factor.
[ G is a unit for acceleration, equal to the acceleration of gravity: 1g = 9,81 m/s2.
Deceleration is “negative acceleration”, in this case the braking, down to a speed of zero, of
a dropped product hitting the ground. The function of cushioning is to, through its compression, extend the time t(s) for this speed reduction v(m/s), thereby reducing the deceleration a(m/s2):
A = v / t The lower deceleration a(m/s2) a product of given mass m(kg) is exposed to, the lower is the force impact F(N) on the product: F = m * a ]
Prototype:An original type, form, or instance that serves as a model on which later stages are based or judged.
Rack:a series of one or more shelves, stacked one above the other, used mainly to optimise warehouse space.
Rail freight: Rail transportation offers many advantages and is (for obvious reasons) used for domestic use or inter-continental. Rail transport is ideal for heavy goods and has a wide range of benefits.
Real-Time: A real-time system provides an immediate response to external events. Often used in relation to tracking; see also track-and-trace.
RECO: Deciding whether reusable packaging will provide cost benefits can be a complex process. To help make this process easier NEFAB have developed RECO, a Visual Basic software tool. Developed by NEFAB with the purpose of simplifying the evaluations necessary when considering reusable packaging, RECO is used by NEFAB to help organisations in the decision making process. As the central element of a packaging audit, RECO can help identify the optimum solution. RECO is the tool to use to make proper and detailed calculations related to the complex packaging situations with many parameters involved.
Recycled Paper: Paper made from extracting used paper fibre, see Corrugated.
Relative Humidity (%RH): For a given temperature, the Relative Humidity is the ratio between the actual amount of water contained in the air and the maximum possible amount of water – saturated air.
RePak: This is a Nefab brand name for its returnable wood and plywood returnable containers. They are completely customizable and offer tremendous benefits pending the flow of goods. A general rule of thumb is if the packaging goes through x # of destinations, than a returnable packaging is suitable and will achieve cost savings.
Returnable Packaging:“Returnable Packaging are packaging designed to be reused in open and closed loops” A more deep definition could be as follows; A shipping and storage container which is designed for reuse without impairment of its protective function and which can be repaired and/or refitted to prolong its life or to adapt it for shipment of items other than that for which it was originally employed.
Returnables: Under the right conditions, returnable packaging solutions have several potential advantages compared to expendable packaging:
· long term usage
· reduced packaging material costs
· reduced handling and packaging related labour costs
· environmental concerns (recycling, reduced material usage and waste disposal)
· reduced transportation costs (e.g. due to better stackability)
To operate a returnable packaging, you need an organization that takes care of:
o the development and design of a packaging
o the investment in a quantity of packaging to use instead of expendable packaging
o the actors, a group of at least two users in a loop
o the administration and tracking of the packaging
o a setup for maintaining the system
RFID: RFID is radio-frequency identification, a system that uses radio signals to locate and identify merchandise, batched products or transportation assets fitted with special electronic tags. The tags – also known as smart labels or intelligent tags – enable the automatic track-and-trace of merchandise/assets throughout the supply chain.
Road freight: Road transportation is the most commonly used method in practice today. The numbers are getting smaller as more and more companies export but it is still the most used mode of transport by a wide margin.
Screen Printing:Screen-printing is often used to print on assembled boxes. Printing is done directly on the box or sheet, by pressing the ink through a net template onto the plywood.
Sea freight: Sea transportation is usually used by companies who ship a large amount of goods at once, with longer lead times. This mode of transport is the longest, yet is ideal for bulk shipments such as coal and minerals.
Sealing Machines: These equipments are used to seal special flexible films like complex plastic (alu+PE+paper). Some equipment can be more flexible like sealing pliers, in order to make the sealing process “in Place” or complemented with special accessories like air suction devices or special sealing bars.
Security tape: Reliably indicates in several languages when someone has tried to open a package. Sealing parcels with this tape will noticeably reduce theft.
Semi-chemical: Fluting made by semi-chemical process with virgin wood pulp, see Corrugated
Sheet Plant: A corrugated box maker that converts sheet board only
Shielding Materials: Shielding materials have a barrier or enclosure that limits the passage of current and attenuates the energy resulting from an electrostatic discharge. Often there are bags with a lamination of metallic, aluminium, nickel or copper. See ESD.
Shock: Shock will appear when the packaging with the product suddenly being dropped in some ways. Most of the time the shock appear in an accident, but the shock will appear for ex. When the train changes freight car, or the handling of the product/packaging is rugged.
Shock and Vibration: Shock and Vibration is an environment the product will be exposed for under the fright, or in the handling of the packaging. How to Protect against Shock & Vibration. To protect against shock and vibration, you have several opportunities. But to decrease the opportunities there are some questions to make. How fragile is the product? What is the value of the product? How will the product be freight? What is the estimate volume of the product? This is some question to make before you choose the packaging material.
Single Face: A board or paper with one liner and fluting only, see corrugated.
Single Wall Corrugation: This is probably the most popular corrugated board material used in carton manufacture. Manufactured in either B, C or E flutes depending on the application.
Sizing: Sizing chemicals are added to fibres in the paper making stage to increase the resistance of the paper to the preparation and spreading of aqueous liquids such as inks. See Corrugated
Sourcing: The practice of locating and procuring raw materials, components, finished goods and services
Stacking Strength: This refers to the amount of weight a box or pallet can withstand during transport and warehousing. The advantage of stacking strength in transport is to optimize containers or trucks for savings opportunities, and in warehouses to save space.
Stapling: From the cardboard blank to the cardboard box. Stapling is an alternative to taping and is particularly fast and efficient when making cardboard boxes for transport purposes. In this process the cardboard blanks are folded and connected at the butt joints. In this way the both ends – after the filling process – are sealed.
Steel Strap: Sometimes simple is better. Steel strapping is the classic method of securing loads – and despite the numerous advantages of plastic strap it is sometimes the better solution, even today. For example, when strapping very heavy loads or if the items have particularly sharp edges which might possibly damage a plastic strap.
Strap machines: This tools and equipments are necessary to apply correctly the strap. Tension is a very important aspect when we are developing a good and secure packaging process. Manual tools are indicated for small volume applications while automatic machines are used for larger volumes. Size of the packaging is important because there are some limitations. In the extreme solutions (big volumes and non standard sizes) it can be developed special machinery.
Stretch Film: Product shipments will have protection from damage since packages are kept together and no dust or dirt will get in. The transparency allows for visual inspection and can in some cases speed up handling. Stretch film is an easy and simple solution and it is possible to either manually wrap the film around the packaging or to use a machine.
Stretch foils machines and tools: These equipment and tools are very important when applying stretch foil. In order to provide the correct stretching to the plastic film with very important to have the correct machine. For example, it’s extremely important that if we are offering a solution to a specific customer that has the advantage to use high stretch performance film, we must confirm that he has the machine needed to perform this operation. Manual applications are frequently made with simple plastic accessories that ensure a smoother operation.
Test (Corrugated):It is becoming common to categorise brown Test liners within three classes: TL1, TL2, and TL3. Precise and agreed definitions for the three classes are not yet available across the industry. However, the following definitions should serve as a useful guide between the three classes (NOTE: All types of test liner use predominantly recycled fibre): see Test Liner 1 (TL1), Test Liner 2 (TL2), Test Liner 3 (TL3), White Top Test, and/or White Mottled Test.
Test Liner 1 (TL1): This forms the rarest group of liners. They Usually have a Ring Crush Test value (RCT) similar to that of Kraft at the same grammage, with a Burst Index of over 3,0 kPa per g/m2. (Kraft is usually over 3,5 kPa per g/m2). The top surface of a TL1 will be almost indistinguishable from a Kraft liner in appearance and will generally contain a high proportion of long fibres. TL1 should normally be suitable for use wherever Kraft liners may be used.
Test Liner 2 (TL2): This will usually have the RCT value that is ca 90% of that of Kraft at the same grammage, with a Burst index of over 2,5 kPA per g/m2. The top surface of a TL2 will be almost indistinguishable from a Kraft liner in appearance and will contain a high proportion of long fibres. TL2 liners may be suitable for use wherever Kraft liners are used.
Test Liner 3 (TL3): This will usually have the RCT value that is ca 75% of that of Kraft at the same grammage with a Burst index of over 2,0 kPa per g/m2. TL3 liners vary more widely than TL1 and TL2 liners in colour and appearance (spots etc.) from one source to another. The final shade may be a result of dyes as well as the source of fibre being used. TL3 are most often used as inner liners or as outer liners where appearance is not critical.
Testing: A certified test house should carry out testing of any board. These will be known by Nefab’s corrugated partners. Listed below are the main tests carried out on board with a brief description.
· Box compression test – Determines maximum loading before collapse.
· Drop test – A test for severe shock forces on a filled case.
· Edge crush Test (ECT) – A corrugated board strength test of vertical crush resistance.
· Mullen burst – A measure of tear resistance.
· Puncture resistance test – measures the strength of the case liner.
· Cobb test – Measures the absorption rates of the board.
Testing Standards: There are a number of different testing standards on the market and each standard has different severity levels. The important thing when choosing the right standard and the right severity level is to have a dialogue between all the parties concerned. These are the testing laboratory,the client and in some cases the clients customer. The following standards are some of the most frequent standards for transportation testing on the market.
– ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
– ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute
– ISO: International Organisation for Standardization
– ISTA: International Safe Transit Association
– TELCORDIA: Telcordia Technologies (former Bellcore)
Track-and-Trace: The process of recording the progress of a consignment through the supply chain, usually in or near real-time, in order to track its status or trace its movements. Sophisticated control tower systems function as a single point of control, delivering centralised command of the supply chain, with full visibility.
Transport Packaging: Transport packaging includes items such as pallets, shipping containers (corrugated cardboard, wooden crates), stretch wrap, and dunnage (styrofoam peanuts and other cushioning media). Transport packaging is a major source of solid waste, especially in the commercial and industrial sectors of our economy. Waste reduction and recycling alternatives are available for many transport packaging wastes. This section highlights some of the resources available to business and industry.
Transportation Testing: A transportation testing program is divided into different moments which follow the distribution chain. The strains are increasing during the testing program. The lower strains, as handling during packing and stacking in warehouse, are to be tested first. Then comes the vibration testing, which shall simulate the transports with truck and by air. Out of the four transportation methods the highest vibration strains generally occurs during truck transports. Most of the impacts occur when railway trucks are coupling together and the testing method for that is horizontal impacts. The highest strains on a packed product occur when a package is dropped during manual handling and handling with forklift trucks, at the arrival to the final customer.
Vacuum forming:Vacuum forming is a method for thermally shaping a flat plastic sheet in to a three-dimensional shape by heating the sheet and withdrawing the air between the sheet and mold.
Vendor Consolidation: The process of managing various vendors in order to consolidate multiple LTL shipments into a single or smaller number of consignments to reduce costs and improve delivery efficiency.
Vibration: For many products to be packed, a package that provides protection against mechanical shock during shipment is all that is required. There are some products, however, which are known to be sensitive to damage from vibration they might experience during transportation. Vibration is a normally expressed in unit of frequency range (Hz).
Vibration Test: Various forms of transportation vibrations can be simulated in a laboratory by means of a vibration test. The test-bench can be made to swing and vibrate in almost any direction with a number of frequencies and amplitudes to emulate the transportation being used. There is also the possibility to design the test from a transportation cycle viewpoint. During this type of tests the packaging goes through a simulated transport with the different means of transportation used during the haul from the producer to the end customer.
VMI, Vendor Managed Inventory:VMI is the spear head practice of partnering between distribution channel members. It changes the traditional replenishment process from customer-generated purchase orders, based upon economic order quantities, to the replenishment of products based upon actual and forecasted demand. VMI is always based on the principal of “pulled” logistics, where the replenishment of a warehouse takes place on the basis of information about sales/production. The system is based on the exchange of information about current stock levels of both the customer and the supplier. By making this exchange on a more or less daily basis the system makes it possible to better monitor the warehouse and the expected demand. The joint goals of a VMI trading partnership are:
· improved inventory turnover,
· reduction in warehouse inventory,
· reduced number of stock-outs,
· improved service levels,
Warehouse: A covered place for the reception and storage of goods. See also distribution centre.
Water-Spray Test:In those cases the package is to protect the product from the penetration of rain, tests with simulated rainstorms are carried out. The test is designed so that each area of the top surface of the package is sprayed with water maintained at a constant temperature at a specified rate for a specified period. The test package shall be filled with its intended contents and closed normally, as if ready for distribution.
White Mottled Kraft: (sometimes known as “Oyster”) are produced by the same process as White Top liners with the skin of white being randomly distributed to give a mottled appearance. This kind of liner was popular in mid 90’s.
White Mottled Test: These are produced by the same process as White Top Test liners, with the skin of white being randomly distributed to give a mottled appearance.
White Top Kraft: This was developed to produce a good white appearance with Kraft strength characteristics, but at a lower cost than traditional Bleached Krafts.
– White Top Kraft – A top skin of Bleached Kraft fibres on a Brown Kraft fibre base.
– Coated White Kraft – A white coating, usually China Clay based, on a White Top Kraftliner or Bleached Kraft fibre base.
1A1: Steel drum with non-removable head, see Dangerous Goods
1A2: Steel drum with removable head, see Dangerous Goods
1A2W: Steel drum with removable head (deviating design), see Dangerous Goods
1B2W: Aluminium drum with removable head (deviating design), see Dangerous Goods
1G: Fibre drum, see Dangerous Goods
1H1: Plastics drum with non-removable head, see Dangerous Goods
1H2: Plastics drum with removable head, see Dangerous Goods
3A1: Steel jerrican with non-removable head, see Dangerous Goods
3H1: Plastics jerrican with non-removable head, see Dangerous Goods
3H2: Plastics jerrican with removable head, see Dangerous Goods
3PL: A ‘3PL’ or third-party logistics provider; a supplier of outsourced logistics services that primarily uses its own assets and resources.
4A: Steel box, see Dangerous Goods
4AW: Steel box (deviating design) , see Dangerous Goods
4C1: Box of natural wood, see Dangerous Goods
4D: Plywood box, see Dangerous Goods
4DV: Plywood box (special packaging), see Dangerous Goods
4G: Fibreboard box, see Dangerous Goods
4GV: Fibreboard box (special packaging), see Dangerous Goods
4GW: Fibreboard box (deviating design), see Dangerous Goods
4H2: Solid plastics box, see Dangerous Goods
4H2W: Solid plastics box (deviating design), see Dangerous Goods
4PL: A ‘4PL’ or fourth-party logistics provider; a supplier of outsourced supply chain coordination and management services that generally does not own or operate the underlying logistical assets and resources. See also 3PL and lead logistics provider.
5H3: Woven plastics bag, water resistant, see Dangerous Goods
5H4: Plastics film bag, see Dangerous Goods
5M1: Paper bag multiwall, see Dangerous Goods
5M2: Paper bag multiwall, water resistant, see Dangerous Goods
6HA1: Composite packaging,plastics inner receptacle with outer steel drum, see Dangerous Goods
11A: Metal IBC for solids, see Dangerous Goods
11D: Plywood IBC for solids (IBC = Intermediate Bulk Container), see Dangerous Goods
11H1: Rigid plastics IBC for solids, see Dangerous Goods
13H1: Flexible IBC without coating or liner, see Dangerous Goods
13H2: Flexible IBC coated, see Dangerous Goods
13H3: Flexible IBC with liner, see Dangerous Goods
13H4: Flexible IBC coated and with liner, see Dangerous Goods
31A: Metal IBC for liquids, see Dangerous Goods
31B: Aluminium IBC for liquids, see Dangerous Goods
31HA1: Composite IBC for liquids with plastics inner receptacle, see Dangerous Goods
50D: Large packaging of plywood, see Dangerous Goods